نكات حائز اهمیت در طراحى ساختمان با ضوابط آتشنشانی

جمعه 10 اردیبهشت 1395 06:43 ب.ظ   نویسنده : alireza pahlavanzade rahimi      


1-اگر ساختمان از ٥طبقه مسكونى بیشتر باشد مشمول ضوابط آتش نشانى میگردد.                          
 2 
-اگر ساختمانى، ٦ طبقه مسكونى و یا بیشتر داشته باشد و ارتفاع كف آخرین طبقه مسكونى از
كف +_ ٠،٠٠ بیشتر از ٢٣ متر ارتفاع داشته باشد حتماً نیازمند تعبیه پله فرار بغیر از دستگاه پله اصلى ساختمان میباشد. (در صورتیكه ساختمان ٦ طبقه باشد و كف آخرین طبقه مسكونى دقیقاً ٢٣ متر باشد، نیاز به پله دوم نیست.)
 
3 -در صورت نیاز به پله فرار دو دستگاه پله باید حتماً از بالاترین طبقه تا آخرین طبقه دسترسى داشته باشند

 4  -فاصله دربهاى ورودى دو دستگاه پله از یكدیگر برابر است با نصف بزرگترین قطر بناى احداثى یا ٢٣ متر (هر كدام كه بیشتر باشد) در شرایطى كه فاصله از نصف قطر بیشتر ولى از ٢٣ متر كمتر باشد در مواردى با ارفاق تا حدود ٢١ متر هم پذیرفته شده.
قابل توجه است كه درب راه پله ها در كلیه طبقات به سمت داخل باكس پله و فقط در طبقه تخلیه خروج كه معمولاً همكف میباشد رو به بیرون باكس پله باز میشوند.

 5-در شرایطى كه ساختمان به لحاظ تردد جزو ساختمانهاى متوسط یا پر تردد قرار گیرد و پله فرار نداشته باشد حتماً تحت ضوابط ویژه اطفاء و اعلام حریق قرار میگیرد و نیازمند جانمایى و اجراى اسپرینكلر (افشانك) و دتكتور حرارتى و دود به غیر از جعبه آتش نشانى كه در مشاعات هر طبقه تعبیه گردیده، میباشد.
6-خیلى مهم است كه بدانید در صورت قرار گرفتن در شرایط بند ٥ شما حتماً نیازمند یك منبع ذخیره آب در موتورخانه ساختمان بوده كه ظرفیت آن بسته به میزان تردد و مساحت بنا تعریف میگردد. این نكته بدلیل پیش بینى فضاى لازم در داخل موتورخانه بیان شد. براى جعبه آتش نشانى علاوه بر كپسول، نیاز به شلنگ بوده كه به دو خط لوله (  7-تر و خشك) كه تر از داخل منبع آب ساختمان و خشك از شیر انتظار قرار گرفته در نماى ساختمان یا دیوار حیاط رو به كوچه تغذیه میگردند.

8- فاصله اسپرینكلرها (افشانك) از هم مینیمم ٢،٨٠ متر و ماكسیمم ٤ متر بوده و فاصله اسپرینكلرها از دیواره هاى فضا مینیمم یك متر و ماكسیمم ٢،٢٠ متر میباشد 9-در پاركینگها وجود یك اسپرینكلر رو سر جا پارك هر ماشین اجبارى میباشد. و رعایت موارد بند ٨ نیز الزامیست

10    -در محلهایى نظیر راهرو مشاعات طبقات كه در تماس با چاله آسانسور میباشد بدلیل عدم ریزش آب افشانكها به داخل چاله آسانسور پس از فعال شدن، معمولاً از تعبیه اسپرینكلرها خوددارى میشود.
11     -در برخى موارد مشاهده شده كه در ساختمانهاى با تردد متوسط یا بالا محل استقرار ماشین آتش نشانى در داخل حیاط الزامیست و براى این منظور فضایى با عرض ٦ متر و طول ١٠ متر لحاظ گردیده.
 12-در طراحى فضاهاى مشاعات نظیر استخر، سالن اجتماعات، اتاق ورزش و ... طراحى درب خروج اضطرارى علاوه بر درب ورودى اصلى الزامیست

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